ingredient compendium

We take great care in choosing ingredients for all of our products, selecting only those with demonstrable benefits to skin health. We've painstakingly researched every substance that goes into our potions, and would love to share our knowledge!

This guide is designed to provide detailed information for the oils in my skincare products so that you can better understand the underlying chemical composition of these products. My goal is to provide clear and concise information to help you make the most informed decision in terms of what product might be best for you. I also intend for this guide to help you in your own endeavors in skincare formulations!

Mortar and Pestle with rose petals


Skincare Products 101

Carrier Oils & Butters:

Apricot Kernel Jojoba Maracuja Shea Butter
Avocado Kiwi Seed Meadowfoam Seed Sweet Almond
Beeswax Kokum Butter Raspberry Seed Tamanu
Cocoa Butter Macadamia Nut Roman Chamomile Virgin Coconut
EVOO Mango Butter Rosehip Seed

Essential Oils:

Bergamot Clove Lavender
Blue Yarrow Frankincense Vitamin E
Clary Sage Geranium Ylang Ylang



You might feel resistant to putting oils on your face, because for the longest time products have been labeled as “oil free” as a way of indicating that it will not clog pores or cause acne. Well… that’s a little misleading. First of all, your skin produces sebum, a natural oil in order to maintain moisture and keep the skin pliable and healthy. There are also plenty of oils that do not clog pores at all. There are also plenty of ingredients that can be in facial products that are not oils and they will clog pores. A common term you might have heard thrown around is whether a product is “non-comedogenic,” which means it is non pore-clogging. A product is generally considered non-comedogenic when the ingredients all fall within a rating of 0-2 on the comedogenic scale, but it could also mean that a product primarily contains compounds that fall within 0-2 with a few ingredients further down on the list that are higher on the comedogenic scale. But then again, the skincare industry is not regulated so companies can really say whatever they want. Know your ingredients and understand them from a deep, cellular basis! 

On a personal note: I have experienced all the different types of acne at all ages in my life. My experience with acne has caused me to strive to always gain more information about the best oils to have the best skin. There have been a lot of ups and downs, let me just say! What I have learned, is that it is particularly important for me to pay attention to the comedogenic rating of oils, to cleanse properly, and to not overapply oils. 

One oil to rule them all?

I think, most importantly, every individual is going to be fairly different in terms of what exactly works best for their skin. Sadly there is no “one size fits all” or “one oil to rule them all.” You probably need a combination, and it probably needs to be a little unique to you. In general, I make my formulations to work well for most everybody because they contain oils that work well for a wide range of skin types and contain different oils that will provide a wide range of nutritive benefits. I want to help you understand the complexity of these oils, so that you can make a decision about what oil and formulation is best for you. Perhaps it will even inspire you to make your own formulation! 


Generally, I work with facial topical oils that are on a scale of 0 - 2 (therefore, non-comedogenic). There are some I use that are 3, but I will use in smaller concentration to ensure that the pore clogging is less likely and you can still get the nutritive benefits of the compounds in the oil. I recommend you do the same in your skin formulations if you are prone to acne at all (I am). If you are very prone to acne and your skin is especially oily, you might want to stick to oils that are at a level 0-1 until you can get the acne under control. Of course it is always important to remember that acne can be caused by many things, but clogging your pores is a sure-fire way to not help the problem. Let’s also remember that generally speaking, pimples will take some significant time - typically 4-6 weeks to form, so it might take a little time to figure out what is actually working for you individually (and what is NOT working). 

Also, you can use this scale to determine what type of oil you might want to use based on the “feel” of the oil you like to experience for your skin. Generally speaking, oils 0-1 will feel drier and will absorb right into the skin. A rating of 2 will also absorb well in the skin, might give a nice dewy look. A 3 will feel a lot thicker and more nourishing for extra dry skin. A 4 will feel even thicker still. I don’t know any 5s… 

I got a lot of my information on the comedogenic scale rating of oils from this website: 

Comedogenic Scale Rating: 

0 - won’t clog pores at all

1 - very low likelihood of clogging pores

2 - moderately low likelihood

3 - moderate likelihood

4 - fairly high likelihood

5 - high likelihood of clogging pores

Common products at their respective level of Comedogenic Scale Rating: 

0: argan (0), aloe vera gel (0), sunflower (0), hemp seed (0), beeswax (0-2), raspberry seed oil (0-1), shea butter (0-2), mango butter (0-2)

1: zinc oxide (mineral sunscreen ingredient) (1), beeswax (0-2), raspberry seed oil (0-1), shea butter (0-2), grapeseed (1), hazelnut (1), sea buckthorn (1), rosehip (1), strawberry seed (1) maracuja (passionfruit seed) (1-2), plum kernel (1-2), kiwi seed (1), kokum butter (0-1), meadowfoam seed (1)

2: apricot kernel (2), avocado (2-3), mango butter (2), shea butter (0-2), olive (2), jojoba (2), sweet almond (2), evening primrose (2), maracuja (passionfruit seed) (1-2), plum kernel (1-2), peach kernel (2), macadamia nut (2-3)

3:  avocado (2-3), macadamia nut oil (2-3), marula (3-4), sesame seed (3)

4: cocoa butter (4), coconut oil (4)  

A word about coconut oil. Coconut oil is a tricky one. You will find it in some of the all-natural skin formulations today. I’ve seen it in oil cleansers as well. Despite it being high on the comedogenic scale rating, the oil itself does also have a ton of benefits that can potentially help combat acne. In particular, it is high in Lauric Acid, which is especially good at fighting bad bacteria. So… I personally only use it in very small concentrations on my face - I am pretty sure it is a bit pore-clogging for me, BUT you might have an opposite experience.  Everybody is different and might have a different reaction. In general, however, I would say it is not a great option for facial application.


Apricot Kernel Oil (Prunus Armeniaca)
An especially light oil that sinks deeply into the skin’s surface upon application, apricot kernel oil can be considered rather similar to Sweet Almond Oil, but has a slightly dryer feel upon application. Apricot Kernel Oil has a relatively high Vitamin E content, contributing to its ability to minimize wrinkles and fine lines, and combat free radicals. Contains an especially unique ingredient: Nitrilosides (Vitamin B-17). 


  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Wrinkle-reducer
  • High in Vitamin E
Comedogenic Scale Rating: 2
Contraindications: None
Scent: Light, slightly sweet/ nutty 
Fatty Acid Content: 
Oleic Acid: 58-74%
Linoleic Acid: 20-34%
Palmitic Acid: 3-8%
Stearic Acid: up to 3.50%
Alpha-Linoleic Acid: up to 2%
Palmitoleic Acid: up to 1.50%
apricot kernel oil

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Avocado Oil (Persea Gratissima, Persea Americana): We all love Avocados for their nutritive benefits in internal use, but the benefits abound with topical application of Avocado Oil as well. A super nourishing oil, especially great for aging skin and hyperpigmentation, Avocado Oil is very high in nutrients as it is produced from the pulp of the fruit. Avocado is relatively high in the rare compound of palmitoleic acid, which is especially supportive for the top layer of skin. Compounds in this oil are said to be especially beneficial in building collagen - the supportive structure deeper within your skin’s layers. This means it is good at combatting wrinkles and maintaining supple skin.  


  • Builds collagen
  • Good for aging skin 
  • Good for hyperpigmentation
  • High in nutrients
  • Significant linoleic acid content - good for acne, and maintaining the skin’s protective layer. 
  • Significant palmitoleic acid content - healing and anti-aging

Downsides: As a thicker oil, it can be slightly pore-clogging. This should not be a problem in more mature skin. If you are worried about pore-clogging, combine with oils low on the comedogenic scale in your formulation and use a lower percentage of avocado oil. 

Fatty Acid Content: 

Oleic Acid: 60-80% 
Linoleic Acid: 7-20% 
Palmitic Acid: 10-25%
Palmitoleic Acid: 2-8%
Stearic Acid: 0.10 - 0.40%
Comedogenic Scale Rating: 2-3 
Scent: Little to none. 

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You might be surprised to learn that beeswax has a comedogenic rating of only 0-2. This fact is truly amazing, and contributes to the many factors for why I love it so much. You would be hard pressed to find an ingredient that is able to seal in moisture and provide such and effective protective barrier while still not clogging pores. I can’t think of any! Beeswax is also a humectant, which means it attracts water. Additionally, beeswax itself is purported to have antimicrobial properties that help in controlling proliferation of bad bacteria on the skin’s surface.

Comedogenic Scale Rating: 0-2
Scent: Unique honey-like scent


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Cocoa Butter

Cocoa butter’s highly occlusive properties makes it especially effective in locking in moisture and improving skin elasticity. It is very thick and highly emollient and therefore works well for body application when skin is particularly dry or particularly in need of healing. I have included it in my COCOA belly butter, because of its ability to improve skin elasticity especially for pregnant women. This butter is not typically suitable for facial application due to its high comedogenic rating of 4. It can be applied to the face in smaller concentrations and it can be effective as a wrinkle reducer in areas of the face that are less prone to clogged pores (like around the eyes). 


Comedogenic Scale Rating: 4
Contraindications: Not great for facial application. 
Scent: very strongly chocolate-y if unrefined. No scent when refined. 

Fatty Acid Content: 

Stearic Acid: 31-39%
Oleic Acid: 31-38%
Palmitic Acid: 21-29%
Linoleic Acid: 1.50- 5%f

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Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Olive oil has been a staple of healthy food diets for millenia. Nutritionists tout its benefits. We’ve all heard of the “Meditteranean Diet.” But Olive Oil is also super beneficial for skin application. It is a stable carrier oil, which makes it especially great for body products and herbal infusions. Olive Oil contains phytosterols, which contribute to its humectant properties; allowing moisture to be naturally attracted to the skin’s surface. Olive Oil contains a high Oleic Acid content; approximately 70%. This fatty acid earned its name from olive oil itself! Perhaps most importantly for considerations of topical use, Olive Oil is also high in plant-based squalene, which is one of the oils that your skin naturally produces. It has been shown that a deficiency in squalene can cause premature aging. All of this is to say, that Olive Oil does a wonderful job to provide natural moisturization that penetrates deeply into the skin’s layer, supplying protection and rejuvenation.

Fatty Acid Content: 
Oleic Acid: 55-83%
Linoleic Acid: 3.50 - 21%
Palmitic acid: 7.50 - 20%
Stearic Acid: 0.50 - 5.0%
Palmitoleic Acid: 0.30 -3.50 %
Alpha - Linoleic Acid: up to 1.50%
Comedogenic Scale: 2
Contraindications: None known. As an edible oil, it is especially great for combining in lip products. 
Scent: Earthy and fruity (can range quite a bit depending on the variety)

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Kiwi Seed Oil: 

This oil is a special addition to both my RASPBERRY SEED sun balm and the MARACUJA face balm. Its high alpha-Linolenic acid content makes it a unique and potent oil, well suited to assist in treating inflammation. It is also a dry oil that absorbs very well into the skin. Kiwi seed oil is high in Vitamins C and E. The healing combination of high vitamin content and high Omega-3 fatty acid content allow this oil to particularly well suited to healing sun damage. 


Comedogenic Scale Rating: 1
Scent: A light fruity scent. 

Fatty Acid Content: 
Alpha-Linolenic Acid: 58-70% 
Linoleic Acid: 12-17%
Oleic Acid: 10-14%
Palmitic Acid: 3-7%

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Kokum Butter

This truly unique vegetable butter is derived from the fruit of the Garcinia indica tree. Its texture feels vastly different than shea butter or mango butter; It is dry and crumbly and therefore well suited for more oily skin or for those who live in more moist climates. Also, it is the best butter to use for acne-prone skin. The skincare benefits abound for this lighter butter. Kokum butter helps to mitigate signs of aging by boosting collagen production and regenerating skin cells. It provides deep moisturization that helps to improve skin elasticity. 


Comedogenic Scale Rating: 0-1
Scent: Close to none.  

Fatty Acid Content: 
Stearic Acid: 52-65%
Oleic Acid: 30-44%
Palmitic Acid: 2-8%
Linoleic Acid: up to 8%

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Macadamia Nut Oil

A truly unique oil due to its high palmitoleic acid content. Palmitoleic acid is naturally found in the sebum of the skin and is especially found in young skin, but its content decreases with age. Therefore, the topical supplementation of this oil deeply nourishes the skin. Additionally, palmitoleic acid is found to assist in wound healing, inflammation, and hyperpigmentation. This rockstar oil is slightly more thick in texture and therefore works best in combination with lighter oils (like in my MARACUJA face balm!) It has a naturally light, nutty scent in its unrefined form. 


Comedogenic Scale Rating: 2-3
Contraindications: Nut allergy!! Use in combination with other lighter oils if you have acne-prone skin.
Scent: Slightly nutty

Fatty Acid Content: 
Oleic Acid: 53-67%
Palmitoleic Acid: 14-23%
Palmitic Acid: 7-10%
Stearic Acid: 2-5.5%
Linoleic Acid: 1-5%
Arachidic Acid: 1-3%
11-Eiconsenoic Acid: 1-3%
Behenic Acid: up to 1%

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Mango Butter:

Contains a similar chemical makeup to shea butter, but has slightly different vitamin content. Actually, Mango Butter is chock full of vitamins - just like the fruit! In particular, it contains a high level of natural vitamin C and vitamin A. It also contains Mangiferin, which is a polyphenol specific to mangos providing potent antioxidant powers. Mango butter also has very little scent, making it preferable for those who do not like the rich earthiness of shea butter. It also has a somewhat lighter texture than shea butter, which might make it preferable for facial application. 

Comedogenic Scale Rating: 0-2
Contraindications: None
Scent: slightly fruity. 

Summary of Benefits: 

  • High vitamin content
  • Light scent
  • Great for fine lines and wrinkles

Fatty Acid Content: 
Oleic Acid: 35-50%
Stearic Acid: 35-45%
Palmitic Acid: 4-9%
Arachidic Acid: 2-6%

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Maracuja (Passionfruit) Seed Oil

This oil is the superstar of my tropical face balm. Why did I chose to feature this ingredient? Its amazingly high Vitamin C content! Have you ever tasted the amazing passion fruit? It is rather tart, so it makes sense that its seeds carry Vitamin C :) Vitamin C is highly beneficial for skin application. It is arguably one of the most important Vitamins for healthy skin. (Both topically and orally). It will help brighten skin tone and maintain a healthy complexion. Maracuja Oil is beautifully light (0-1 on comedogenic scale) and in its unrefined form has an especially potent tropical scent. 

Comedogenic Scale Rating: 0-1
Scent: Very fruity, almost candy-like. 

Fatty Acid Content: 
Linoleic Acid: 55-80%
Oleic Acid: 10-22%
Palmitic Acid: 5-18%
Alpha Linolenic Acid: up to 2%
Arachidic Acid: up to 1%
Palmitoleic Acid: up to 0.5%


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Meadowfoam Seed Oil:

If you take a quick peak at the fatty acid content of this oil, you will quickly notice that it is vastly different than the other oils I typically use. Meadowfoam Seed Oil more closely resembles Jojoba oil, which is actually a liquid wax. This means that it is highly stable and like Jojoba oil, it closely resembles the sebum of our skin. Therefore, it is easily absorbed and great for acne-prone skin. Despite its low comedogenic rating of 1, Meadowfoam Seed oil is considered to have the ability to provide a protective barrier on the skin’s surface that aids in sun protection. This oil was therefore a welcome addition to my RASPBERRY SEED sun balm. 


Comedogenic Scale Rating: 1
Scent: Light scent, but close to none. 

Fatty Acid Content:
11-Eicosenoic Acid: 65-80%
Docosenoic Acid: 13-19%
Docosadienoic Acid: 15-21%

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Raspberry Seed Oil:

With great anticipation, I waited months and months to find the best source of this beautiful oil. This oil has everything I am looking for (especially in the desert!). Believe it or not, studies show that raspberry seed oil typically has a natural SPF of 25-50. While I do not suggest depending on the raspberry seed oil on its own, it will be an amazing option to supplement your sunscreen. I still recommend good ol’ zinc oxide. Additionally, raspberry seed oil is especially light, non pore-clogging and great for acne prone skin. Very high in linolenic acid. 

Comedogenic Scale Rating: 0-1
Scent: Very fruity and raspberry-y

Fatty Acid Content:
Linolenic Acid: 48-62%
Oleic Acid: 7-15%
Palmitic Acid: 2-5%
Stearic Acid: 0.5 - 3.00%


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Rosehip Seed Oil: It has been labeled “the oil of youth!” I have also heard it called “nature’s botox!” OK let’s understand why: One primary reason that Rosehip Seed Oil delivers powerful benefits for the skin because of its high Vitamin A content. Have you heard of retinols? Retinol is a type of Vitamin A. So, if you know retinols, when you think of rosehip seed oil, think all natural, more mild form of Vitamin A. Vitamin A will help with skin turnover, which is why it is super beneficial for hyperpigmentation. It also helps with smoothing fine lines and wrinkles. This oil is well researched and clinical trials have shown that it has the ability to help skin regeneration in aging skin and scar tissue. It is a relatively thin or "dry" oil, so does not lay heavy on top of the skin, rather it is absorbed fully. Rosehip seed oil in its pure form has a yellow-orange to bright orange color - the brighter the better, but you may need to apply in combinations so that your skin is not too orange.  


  • Significant linoleic acid content - good for acne, and maintaining the skin’s protective layer. 
  • Very high in antioxidants- helps fight free radicals
  • High in Vitamins A, C, E 
  • good at reducing hyperpigmentation and other signs of aging 
  • Contains small-molecule acids that can penetrate deeply into skin’s layers, providing healing benefits 
  • Promotes collagen formation
  • Helps combat UV damage and acne-induced hyperpigmentation
  • Contains tannins that make the oil slightly astringent - great for acne-prone skin 

Downsides: Can go rancid quickly compared to other carrier oils. Store in refrigerator to prolong life. Do not expose to extreme temperatures (especially not sunlight!). Keep in dark bottles. Keep track of how long you have had the oil (don’t use rancid oil). Add some Vitamin E oil in formulations to increase shelf life. Combine with other, more stable oils such as Meadowfoam Seed Oil or Jojoba Oil. Risk of buying less potent oil if it is not bought from a good source. I recommend organic and always unrefined and cold pressed. 

Comedogenic Scale Rating: 1-2
Light and almost not noticeable 

Fatty Acid Content 
Linoleic Acid: 35-50%
Alpha-Linoleic Acid: 22 - 38%
Oleic Acid: 13-18%
Palmitic Acid: 2-5% 
Stearic Acid: up to 3%
Arachidic Acid: up to 1%


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Shea Butter: You might be surprised to hear that something labeled as a “butter” would be recommended for facial application. Shea butter actually has an especially low comedogenic rating of 0-2, making it especially great for topical application, considered “non-comedogenic” by many standards. Therefore, shea butter provides amazing emollient benefits without clogging pores. Richly moisturizing for skin and rich in plant sterols, which provide beneficial nutrients to the skin’s surface. Shea butter is also especially beneficial for treating scars and stretch marks. 


Comedogenic Scale Rating: 0-2
Contraindications: Nut Allergy!! 
Scent: Slightly Nutty and Earthy 

Fatty Acid Content: 
Oleic Acid: 40-50%
Stearic Acid: 36 - 47%
Linoleic Acid: 3- 10%
Palmitic Acid: 2-9%
Arachidic Acid: up to 3%

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Sweet Almond Oil 

A good all-around oil. Can be considered a “dry” oil - will not leave the skin feeling too oily and will not leave it with an oily sheen. It absorbs right into the skin and leaves it feeling very nourished. This oil also contains Vitamin A in addition to Vitamin E. I find it to be very mild and works well for any skin type!

Topical benefits: 

  • Significant linoleic acid content - good for acne, and maintaining the skin’s protective layer. 
  • Anti-inflammatory 
  • High in Vitamin E - skin-healing for scars in particular 
  • Deeply penetrates the skin
  • Easily absorbed
  • Has natural Vitamin A content - great for cell turnover 

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Tamanu Oil

I use Tamanu oil in many different concoctions because it is just so powerful. As a carrier oil, it can be applied directly to the skin. This oil is extracted from the Tamanu nut and was traditionally used by Polynesian people and other Pacific islanders. It therefore possesses an amazing tropical-nutty scent. Its color is equally entrancing. I have purchased Organic Tamanu oils that have ranged from shimmery gray to deep olive-brown green. Its color and texture is somewhat variant, but its smells is always potent and nutty. Look for a tamanu oil that maintains a thick quality at room temperature (this will ensure best quality). If it is more liquid, it has possibly been refined. One compound in Tamanu oil is especially unique: Calophyllolide (a neo-flavonoid). This healing component really sets Tamanu oil apart. There has been significant research on the beneficial topical use of calophyllide. Calophyllide is a lipid that has natural anti-inflammatory healing properties. Tamanu oil is therefore very effective at managing acne. I will honestly say that it might be my favorite oil for combatting acne. The balanced combination of fatty acids (Oleic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid) make this oil especially effective at combatting signs of aging as well.

  • Anti-microbial / anti-bacterial (helps fight acne)
  • Contains a unique ingredient: Callophylide - helps repair scars, combat skin damage, combat inflammation 
  • Analgesic - pain relieving 
  • Absorbs well into the skin’s surface despite being a thick oil
  • Significant linoleic acid content - good for acne, and maintaining the skin’s protective layer. 
  • Good for sensitive skin

Comedogenic Scale Rating: 2
Contraindications: Nut Allergy!! 
Scent: Strong, Nutty, Earthy, Tropical
Downsides: Some people may not like the smell. It does have a fairly strong scent.  

Fatty Acid Content: 
Oleic Acid: 36-53%
Linoleic Acid: 20-38%
Stearic Acid: 11-20%
Palmitic acid: 10-18.50%
Alpha Linoleic Acid: up to 1%


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Virgin Coconut Oil: You will find coconut oil in three of my products: COCONUT sugar scrub, PINON healing salve, and LAVENDER BERGAMOT body butter. So, I must like it a lot. Yep. I am hooked. In its Virgin form, coconut oil is incredibly fragrant. The smell is intoxicatingly sweet. The COCONUT sugar scrub is simply drenched in coconut oil and therefore possesses an all natural tropical paradise-ish fragrance. But seriously, why coconut? Well, turns out its benefits extend far beyond the sweet scent. This oil has a truly unique fatty acid profile. The Lauric Acid content has antimicrobial properties that make it especially beneficial in my PINON salve. It is a saturated oil (hence its solid form at room temperature), but it melts immediately upon contact with skin. As it melts into skin, it provides deep hydration and a protective barrier. 

Comedogenic Scale Rating:
Scent: Very tropical, creamy and nutty. Smells very strongly of fresh coconut. 

Fatty Acid Content: 
Lauric Acid: 45-53%
Myristic Acid: 17-21%
Palmitic Acid: 7.50-10%
Oleic Acid: 5-10%
Caprylic Acid: 5-10%
Capric Acid: 5-8%
Stearic Acid: 2-4%
Linoleic Acid: 1-2.5%


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Bergamot Essential Oil: A bright and enlivening citrus oil. The oil is produced from the rinds of the bergamot fruit, which are green in color. I find this oil to provide an uplifting and brightening tone that especially aids in stress relief and anxiety reduction. This oil is found in my LAVENDER + BERGAMOT body butter. I find that it balances very nicely with light herbal scent of lavender. I do not suggest using citrus oils in facial application due to their tendency to oxidize and potentially cause sun damage. 

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Blue Yarrow Essential Oil: One of the only naturally blue-hued essential oils (along with Blue Tansy and German Chamomile) due to its high chamazulene content. Chamazulene itself is highly soothing and calming and has been shown to have free-radical scavenging capabilities. The soothing quality of this oil allows it to be effective at soothing inflammation. Blue Yarrow essential oil has a light herbaceous scent that is best when combined with other oils. It also has naturally astringent properties that make it particularly well suited as an ingredient for my ROSE GERANIUM balancing mist.

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Clary Sage Essential Oil: Sage holds a special place in my heart because of the incredible presence of this herb in the deserts near my home of Santa Fe. When you traverse through the desert, it is common to experience the aromatic scent of many varieties of desert sage. The scent of clary sage is so calming that it can have a sedative effect. When I discovered that Clary Sage also possesses considerable anti-aging effects, it was a no-brainer to include it in my ANCIENT HERB facial oil. Additionally, Clary Sage has anti-inflammatory properties that assist in combating acne.

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Clove Essential Oil: The first thoughts that come to mind when I inhale the scents of clove are POWER and WARMTH. I am not alone in experiencing this. This oil has been used in Ancient Chinese, Greek and Roman cultures. Clove oil is clearly impressive in its healing capabilities. The warming effect helps encourage blood flow - this is (almost) always handy in the human body and especially in skincare. Anytime we can bring blood flow to area we are therefore bringing fresh blood full of nutrients and healing capabilities. This stimulating effect makes this oil especially beneficial for aging skin. Clove essential oil also has incredible antibacterial and antifungal properties which also make it very effective at treating acne.

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Frankincense Essential Oil: Holy hell, I love this oil. It seems to have endless application. The wisdom of the ancients is infused in this powerful oil with all-healing capabilities. Ancient Sumerians and Egyptians used Frankincense for skin care. Personally, I tend to trust any beauty regimen that has lasted for centuries. I want to draw upon the inherent wisdom of the use of Frankincense in my potions. In particular, Frankincense is great for aging skin and scars. It also acts as a mild anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory and therefore can assist in combating acne. You will find Frankincense Essential oil in both my ROSEHIP facial balm and my ANCIENT HERB facial oil. The scent is mild and woody with an immense calming and centering effect. It is commonly used in meditation practice. 
Precautions: Frankincense can stimulate menstrual flow and should therefore be avoided by pregnant women.

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Geranium Essential Oil: An all-around powerhouse for skin treatment. In my mind, it is one of the absolute best essential oils for treating all skin ailments. It is incredibly beneficial for acne and aging skin. Geranium oil smells herbaceous and floral with an underlying hint of mint. Lending to its amazing skin-healing capabilities, geranium oil has an incredibly balancing effect. It also has the capability to stimulate the lymph system. Lymph flow is always helpful when dealing with any skin ailments. Because the lymph system acts to remove impurities.

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Roman Chamomile: You may have experienced the calming effects of chamomile by sipping an herbal tea. The essential oil is the most potent form of this highly soothing and calming herb. On its own, the scent of Roman Chamomile essential is actually quite fruity and strong, but when combined in smaller concentrations, Roman Chamomile will have that familiarly light herbal scent. The soothing effect makes it especially well suited to calming irritation and balancing inflammation.

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Lavender Essential Oil: Lavender is so ubiquitous it has almost become boring. The thing is -  there is a reason lavender is in everything. It is actually amazing. Lavender has the perfect balance possessing incredible healing capabilities while also maintaining a relaxing and soothing scent. Essentially, it is the best of both worlds. Also, it blends well with SO many other essential oils. You will find Lavender essential oil in my LAVENDER BERGAMOT body butter and my ANCIENT HERB facial oil. In particular, I use Bulgarian Lavender Oil. This variety of lavender oil has a slightly more herbaceous or grassy scent. It is quite different than the lavender we typically experience. Lavender is typically sold as 40/42 essential oil. 40/42 refers to the ratio of Linalool and Linalyl Acetate Esters. This means that this oil is modified after extraction in order to contain optimal scent balance. While the scent of lavender is of course important to me, its therapeutic benefits are more important. Therefore, I have opted to make products containing perhaps the less popular but more therapeutically potent version of lavender - Bulgarian Lavender. Let me know what you think! 

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Vitamin E Oil: You will see Vitamin E oil added to many (most) of my products. I source a high quality version of this oil that is extracted from wheat germ. Vitamin E oil acts as a natural preservative and provides antioxidant benefits to my skincare products. Many of the oils I use possess a natural Vitamin E content, but Vitamin E oil is extracted to contain an especially high content of tocopherols.

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Ylang Ylang Essential Oil: One of the most beautifully floral-scented essential oils you can possibly find. Its smell is almost intoxicating and could be overwhelming if used in too high a concentration. This oil seems to hold many secrets in its unique potency for a wide range of benefits. Ylang ylang is effective for balancing emotions and skin alike.